The challenges of preserving digital content

A problem archivists have been bringing up for a while now is that with the majority of content going digital and the pace of change in storage mechanisms and formats, it’s becoming harder to preserve content even when it is not what would be considered old by the standards of other historic documents created by humanity.

Case in point – the efforts required to preserve even recent movies as described in this article on IEEE Spectrum. As the article mentions, we’ve already lost access to 90% of US movies made during the silent area and about 50% of movies made before 1950. I suspect that the numbers for the European film industry might be even worse thanks to World War 2. However, keep in mind that those are numbers for movies stored on a more durable medium (and yes, I know that the early nitrate film is about as flammable as they come).

One of the moist poignant quotes, regarding Pixar’s challenge when trying to re-render Finding Nemo in 3D nine years after it’s initial release:

The fact that the studio had lost access to its own film after less than a decade is a sobering commentary on the challenges of archiving computer-generated work.

Even consumer households will face the same issue sooner or later when it comes to preserving family photos, home movies and other digital content. Just looking aroud my office, there are terrabytes of data floating around, a fair number of photographs and video. And of course this blog doesn’t have a dead tree version either, nor have I ever had an article published in a software development magazine. Not to mention that the ones I would have like to publish in (C/C++ User’s Journal and Dr Dobbs) are now dead and gone as well. Their paper products are hopefully still being preserved, but how long are we able to read their digital archives?

If we had infinite space to store physical objects we could try to preserve the computers the content is stored on, but that’s not realistically possible either.

For me personally, I am trying to make sure that the relatively recent content migrates with me when I update my computers and remains accessible. So far I’ve been lucky that my approximately 10 years of digital photos are all still usable. Even with that precaution in place I will try to shoot more film again, but only after checking that my decade-old Minolta film scanner is still working. Fortunately I also own a flatbed scanner that can scan film up to 5″x4″ and as long as it remains functional and software like Hamrick’s Vuescan supports it, I should be OK with a dual analog/digital strategy. Plus places like Freestyle photo seem to be able to supply more film that’s been reissued these days compared to a few years ago.

Installing a Java 8 JDK on OS X using Homebrew

Update: The title of this post isn’t quite correct – using the homebrew cask mentioned in this blog post will install the current major version of the Oracle JDK. If you want to install a specific major version of the JDK (6 or 8 at the time of writing), I describe how to do that in this new blog post.

I’ve had a ‘manual’ install of JDK 8 on my Mac for quite a while, mainly to run Clojure. It was the typical “download from the Oracle website, then manually run the installer” deployment. As I move the management of more development tools from manual management over to homebrew, I decided to use homebrew to manage my Java installation also. It’s just so much easier to get updates and update information all in one place. Oh, and installs the same JDK anyway, just without all the additional pointy clicky work.

Removing the existing installation

Fortunately Oracle has uninstall operations on their website. It’s a rather manual approach but at least it is documented and the whole procedure consists of three commands. Unfortunately in my case this didn’t end up uninstalling an older version of the JDK. For some reason, I had ended up with both 1.8.0_60 and 1.8.0_131 installed on my machine, and Oracle’s uninstall instructions didn’t touch the 1.8.0_60 install in /System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework. I suspect this is an older JDK brought over from the Yosemite install and the consensus on the Internet I could find suggest to leave that alone as the system needs those.

Apparently in older versions of OS X is was possible to run /usr/libexec/java_home -uninstall to get rid of a Java install, but that option does not appear to work in OS X Sierra anymore

Installing Java using Homebrew

The installation via homebrew is about as simple as expected. I have cask installed already, so for me it’s a simple matter of running

brew cask install java

and it will install the latest Oracle JDK. You can use

brew cask info java

to verify which version it will install.

If you haven’t got homebrew installed, follow the installation instructions on and also make sure that you install cask:

brew tap caskroom/cask

After re-installing the JDK using homebrew, java_home also finally reports the correct version:

odie-pro:~ timo$ /usr/libexec/java_home
odie-pro:~ timo$